Category Archive: Citation


How to cite Code of Federal Regulations in MLA Style

Question: I am trying to correctly cite federal statutes. Specifically Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 553.101. How is this to be done in MLA style? Here is a link to the work I am attempting to reference. Open link and scroll down to the yellow highlighted area for the specific section I need – 533-101.

I also will be referencing from Oregon Revised statutes. How are these referenced in MLA style?

Solution: MLA follows the specific Blue Book reference examples for Code of Federal Regulation works.  Your specific reference will look like the one below after completion.

“Volunteer” Defined, 29 C.F.R. § 533.101 (2011). Web.

o Title – Title of the section you are referencing. “Volunteer” defined
o Title Number – Number of the entire title or section which in your case is 29.
o Source Name Abbreviation – C.F.R.
o Section Number – 533.101
o Year – 2011

In-Text Citation – (“Volunteer” Defined)

Below is an MLA state statute example for you. I accessed this site for the information.

Duties of Health Care Employer, 14 O.R.S. § 654.414 (2011). Web.

In-text citation – (Duties of Health Care Employer)


19 chapters 1 book – How to cite MLA Style


Do I have to add all the same information in when I have a book with chapters written by different authors? The only things changing are the names, page numbers and title of chapter.  This book has 19 chapters! How many work citations do I need to create?


If you cite more than one chapter from the same edited collection, MLA specifies that you can cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate chapter. You should consider this option since you have several chapter references from one book. To do so, create a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor’s name as below:

McKenna, Mary, and Joseph Hiram, eds. Butterflies Around the World: Every Species

and Habitat. Marietta: Press, 2010. Print.

Then, for each chapter from the edited book, list the author’s name in last name, first name format, the chapter title, the editor’s last name, and the page range:

Smith, Joseph. “Wing Formations.” McKenna and Hiram 36-50.

Wiley, Adam. “Compromising Habitats.” McKenna and Hiram 12-24.

Alphabetical order should be maintained, even when cross-referencing items in the works cited list.


How to Cite National Vital Statistics Report in MLA Format

QUESTION: How do you reference National Vitals Statistics Reports which is a government publication from 4 government agencies with a DHHS Publication No. but also it has a Volume # and an Issue #?


It depends on how you are accessing the report. Some of the elements you have are not needed for the reference. The first reference example below is for a report located within a book. The second example is for a report located on the CDC website.

FIRST: Author’s name, last name first and initials. “National vital statistics reports.” In Title of

book. Editor’s name, last name first and initials. Publisher Location: Name of Publisher,

Year. Page #. Website Information. Access Date.

Anderson, Ron. “National Vital Statistic Report.” Encyclopedia of Human Development. Ed.

Nancy Salkind. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2005. 884. Center for Disease Control. Web. 1 May


SECOND: Author’s name, last name first and initials. Title of report. Publisher Location: Name

of Publisher, Year. Name of website. Access date.

Hamilton, Jan, Ben Martin, and Peter Sullivan. Births: Final Data for 2009. Hyattsville:

National Center for Health Statistics, 2010. Center for Disease Control. Web. 1 May 2014.

The CDC website is chockful  of health related information which might be helpful for your next paper.


International Documents – How to Cite – MLA Style

Question: My issue is that my dissertation is on South Africa and I am accessing government documents regarding their Constitution and resolutions to African Union charters. So, I have had difficulty deciding what is the appropriate reference type to select. Selecting US Constitution defaults to putting US vice South Africa…

1. Protocol to the African Charter on Human Aid and People’s rights on the rights of Women in Africa

2. South African Constitution

3. UN Charter on Council on ending discrimination against women

SOLUTION: After a bit of research, I have come up with information about your three reference types. I would suggest choosing MLA’s Digital File with Group Author type for the Protocol and a Document type for the UN Convention. Once created, your references will appear like the one below:

African Union. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the

Rights of Women in Africa. 2003. PDF file.

United Nations General Assembly. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of

Discrimination Against Women., 1979. United Nations. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.

Countries have different ways of labeling and citing laws. The Harvard, APA, MLA and CMS styles are based on the U.S. or U.K. system so they do not apply in South Africa. In the absence of specific institutional guidelines, use the following simple format for your Constitution reference.

Ref. Example: Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act no. 108 of 1996.

Citation Example: Const. of South Africa, Sect. 1a

New York University created a PDF on how to cite Foreign and International Legal works.

Check it out!


Blog Posts & Comments – APA Style

Blog postings and blog comments can be referenced within a research paper. Due to the popularity and influx of blogs, MLA has created a specific way to reference them.

Blog sites have become commonplace. A quick internet search for blogs will bring up multiple sites regarding all different topics. There are blogs about sports, cooking, writing, politics, current events, and gossip. The list is never ending.

Two of my favorites I would like to share.

unbrave girl 

The subtitle to this blog is “encouraging scaredy cats since 2009.” Sally, the writer, created the blog initially to share funny stories about her travels and life and has successfully continued.

The Pioneer Woman 

Ree Drummond began this blog to let readers know about what life is like as a pioneer woman. The humorous subtitle to this blog is “plowing through life in the country … one calf nut at a time.” The blog is divided into sections: Cooking, Home and Garden, Photography, Homeschooling, and Confessions.

Basic Format for Blog Post:

Last Name, First. “Title of the Posting.” Name of the Website. Version or Edition # (if

any). Sponsor or Publisher of Site (if any), Day Month Year Published. Web. Access Date.


Sally. “10 Things I Learned from Teenaged Girls this Week.” unbrave girl. N.p., 7 Mar.

2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2014.

Tess in TN. “Re: Irish Grilled Cheese.” The Pioneer Woman. N.p., 17 Mar. 2014. Web. 17

Mar. 2014.

Do you have a favorite blog you would like to share?


MLA Style – Academic Catalog

QUESTION: I am referencing an academic catalog from my college. What reference type is an academic catalog? How is it referenced in MLA style? Below is the information I have.


SOLUTION: Years ago academic catalogs were only in print. I remember them being rather cumbersome but the book was important to keep. Now, most colleges do not even create a print edition. The college makes them available on their website in order to have the ability to quickly update as needed.

In order to create a properly formatted MLA reference, the following elements are needed: Group Author, Title, Publication Date, Publisher Name, and the Format.

Your reference should look like the one below. Take note of the entire title and how it is formatted.

Chamberlain College of Nursing. 125th Anniversary Commemorative Edition:

Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2013-2014 Academic Catalog. Chamberlain

College of Nursing, 2014. PDF file.

I see that the catalog is 175 pages. Aren’t you glad you do not have to lug this one around?

To take a look at the college and available programs, click here.


Newsletter Article – Stress!! – MLA Style

QUESTION: Could you please look at this “newsletter”. I am not 100% sure how to reference this. Here are the attributes it has:

1) Editor
2) Newsletter from the American Institute of Stress (First name)
3) Newsletter is called “Health and Stress” (second name)
4) Name of article

This is what I have put together, but I do not think it is correct. However I am not sure how to do something with two names?

Rosch, P. (2010). Health and stress: How valid are Selye’s diseases of adaptation. The American Institute of Stress, 2, 1-13. Retrieved from
SOLUTION: MLA does have specific guidelines on referencing a newsletter article. The article you are referencing does not have an author. Rosch is the editor in chief of the entire newsletter not the author. The title of the newsletter is Health and Stress: The Newsletter of the American Institute of Stress. There are no page numbers included in the PDF.

Your reference should look like the one below:

“How Valid are Selye’s Diseases of Adaptation.” Health and Stress: The Newsletter of the

American Institute of Stress Feb. 2010: N. pag. American Institute of Stress. Web. 16

Feb. 2014.

I did not realize that there was an American Institute of Stress. The website has quite a bit of interesting information on the topic. You might want to take a look.



No Title for Photograph – MLA Style

QUESTION: I am having trouble citing and referencing photos. If I have used a photo from the web, how do I reference it and cite it?? Is there a reference for digital media that is a photo?? Does MLA have standards to use web photos?? If you do not know the actual artist or photographer, how exactly to you cite this on the reference page??

This is the link to one of the photos that I am looking for:


First, I would suggest doing a search to locate the photos somewhere else. You may then have access to the photographer’s name, title of the photograph, and the date which certainly is preferred. (A quick search on GOOGLE for the photo comes up with many valid sites). You could also contact the blog writer and request the information. It is very important to do a thorough search for this information.

There is a specific MLA guideline in citing references without a title that is very rarely used or needed. The guideline states, if no title is present, you need to create a brief, descriptive title. For this photo: Children at Desks

Your reference for this photo:

Children at Desks. 2012. Matt’s Dustpan World. Web. 17 Feb. 2014.

Again, I strongly urge you to search for the photograph elsewhere in order to locate more valid information.


Top Posts of 2013 – How to Cite

Below is a list of the top MLA reference formatting posts from 2013. The reference types covered include: podcast, online journal article, press release, letter to the editor, and book review.

How to Cite postings will continue throughout 2014. If there is a particular type you would like covered, send me an email and I will be happy to touch on the subject.

How to Cite a Podcast

How to Cite an Online Journal Article

How to Cite a Press Release

How to Cite a Letter to the Editor

How to Cite a Book Review


MLA – Cite A Letter

For most, letter writing has gone by the wayside.  While many stay updated with friends by email or other types of social media, the nature of communicating through personal letters has undeniably changed.  Letters were once often meant not just for the person to whom they were sent, but rather meant to be read aloud and shared.  They were history.

Letters fall into three categories for a bibliography. A published letter, an unpublished letter within an archive, or a personal letter received by the researcher. All three types are cited and referenced within your research paper.

An example of Letter found in archive

Author, Andy. Letter to Name of Receiver. Date of Communication. MS or TS. Name of

Collection. Name of Archive, City. Print.

Lincoln, Abraham. Letter to Joseph Hooker. 26 Jan. 1863. MS. Alfred Whitall Stern

Collection of Lincolniania. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections

Division, Washington. Print.

An example of Letter found within a book

Author, Andy. Date of Communication. Letter # (if available) of Title of the Collection.

Ed. Eric Editor. City of Publication: Publisher Name, Year. Page Numbers. Print.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 24 Oct. 1840. Letter 172 of The Oxford Book of Letters. Ed. Frank

Kermode and Anita Kermode. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 310-11. Print.

An example of a Letter received by the author

Author, Andy. Letter to the author. Date of Communication. MS or TS.

Smargiasso, Kim. Letter to the author. 2 Mar. 2010. MS.

*MS refers to work written by hand. TS refers to work prepared by machine